A Novel Combination Therapy Using Rosuvastatin and Lactobacillus Combats Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats by Targeting the TXNIP/NLRP3 Interaction and Influencing Gut Microbiome Composition
4/8/2021 Inflammasome targeting and controlling dysbiosis are promising therapeutic approaches to control ulcerative colitis. This report is the first to investigate the mechanisms underlying the coloprotective effects of rosuvastatin and Lactobacillus and their combined therapy on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Our results demonstrate the aggravation of intestinal inflammation as a consequence of an HFD following DSS administration. An association between dyslipidemia, LDL oxidation, CD36 expression, ROS generation, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) upregulation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation was demonstrated by DSS exposure in HFD-fed rats. We demonstrated that rosuvastatin/Lactobacillus significantly suppressed the DSS/HFD-induced increase in colon weight/length ratio, DAI, MDI, and myeloperoxidase, as well as corrected dysbiosis and improved histological characteristics. Additionally, caspase-1 activity and IL-1β-driven pyroptotic activity was significantly reduced. Rosuvastatin/Lactobacillus showed prominent anti-inflammatory effects as revealed by the IL-10/IL-12 ratio and the levels of TNF-α and IL-6. These latter effects may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphorylation-induced activation of NF-κB and a concomitant reduction in the expression of NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18. Furthermore, rosuvastatin/Lactobacillus reduced Ox-LDL-induced TXNIP and attenuated the inflammatory response by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. To conclude, rosuvastatin/Lactobacillus offers a safe and effective strategy for the management of ulcerative colitis.