Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirenol (Kr) is an ent-pimarane type diterpenoid that has been reported from Siegesbeckiaorientalis, S. pubescens, and S. glabrescens (family Asteraceae). These plants have been used traditionally for treating various ailments such as hypertension, neurasthenia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, snakebites, allergic disorders, paralysis, soreness, cutaneous disorders, rubella, menstrual disorders, numbness of limbs, dizziness, headache, and malaria. Importantly, in recent years, Kr has received great attention due to its diversified pharmacological activities.
Aim of the study: The current work aims to give an overview on the reported pharmacological activities of Kr. Furthermore, the findings regarding its methods for extraction, quantitative analysis, purification, pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutical and food preparations, biosynthesis, identification, semisynthetic analogues, and toxicity are highlighted to provide a reference and perspective for its further investigation.
Methods: Electronic databases including ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Wiley Online Library, Taylor & Francis, PubMed, Springer, JACS, and Google Scholar were searched up to the beginning of 2021 to identify the reported studies.
Results: A total of 93 articles have been reviewed. The reported data suggested that Kr possessed various bioactivities including cytotoxic, apoptotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, anti-photo-aging, anti-adipogenic, antimicrobial, muscle function improvement, fracture and wound healing, and anti-arthritic. In addition, studies revealed that the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Kr may mediate many of its therapeutic potentials as confirmed by several in-vitro and in-vivo studies.
Conclusion: This review provides an updated summary of the recent studies on Kr, including methods for extraction, quantitative analysis, purification, pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutical and food preparations, biosynthesis, and identification, as well as semisynthetic analogues, pharmacological activities, and toxicity. Thus, this work can provide useful considerations for planning and design future research on Kr.
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