13/09/42 Nanotechnology has been previously employed for constructing drug delivery vehicles, biosensors, solar cells, lubricants and as antimicrobial agents. The advancement in synthesis procedure makes it possible to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over physico-chemical and optical properties that are desired for specific clinical or biological applications. The surface modification technology has further added impetus to the specific applications of NPs by providing them with desirable characteristics. Hence, nanotechnology is of paramount importance in numerous biomedical and industrial applications due to their biocompatibility and stability even in harsh environments. Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCIs) are one of the major traumatic injuries that are commonly associated with severe consequences to the patient that may reach to the point of paralysis. Several processes occurring at a biochemical level which exacerbate the injury may be targeted using nanotechnology. This review discusses possible nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis and therapy of TSCI, which have a bright future in clinical practice.