23/09/42 Thielavia species (Chaetomiaceae) are a wealthy source of enzymes such as laccases, cutinases, glucuronoyl esterases, feruloyl esterases, 1,4-β-endoglucanase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases that reported to have various biotechnological and industrial applications in dye decolorization, bio-refinery, biomass utilization, ester biosynthesis and biodegradation. Different metabolites have been reported from this genus as depsides, azaphilones, pyrazines, naphthodianthrones and anthraquinones derivatives. These metabolites have attracted research interest due to their fascinating structures and diverse bioactivities, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and superoxide anion generation, phospholipase, prostaglandins synthesis and proteasome inhibitory activities. Therefore, these compounds can be taken into account as candidates for the development of effective and novel pharmaceutical leads. The current review represents the relevant information for the Thielavia genus, in particular, its phytoconstituents and their pharmacological activities, as well as the biotechnological applications of Thielavia species published from 1981 till now. More than 40 metabolites are described and - 71 references are cited.